Baking technology confectionery

Ingredients & PROCESSING -  recipes & Processing

6.1 Theory of ingredients and processing

Introduction
Most of confectionery products often require special ingredients. In this chapter the special ingredients for puff pastry, cake and sponges, choux paste, meringue and short paste will be discussed as well as the processing methods inclusive baking.

 6.1.1 Puff pastry
As the name implies, the goods produced from this kind of paste should be very light and flaky, yet there should be shortness about the pastry so that it eats crisp and is free from toughness or doughtiness. A laminated structure is build up by rolling and folding, to get alternating layers of dough and fat.

Several names are used for the same methods and recipes.

A classification can be made according to the:

Method used

 

All-in or Dutch method
Universal or French method
English method
No time methods
Combinations

Recipe used

 

Half puff pastry (50%)
Three quarter puff pastry (75%)
Full puff pastry (100%)

Products made

Sweet puff pastry
Savory puff pastry

Any recipe or method can be used for any product.

Recipes
The main difference in the recipes is the amount of fat, although a few adjustments have to be made the different methods.
The following recipes are commonly used:

recipe

Half puff pastry

Three quarter

Full puff pastry

Flour
*salt
Water
Color
Pastry margarine

100 %
    1 %
  60 %

    50%

100 %
    1 %
  60 %

 75 %

100 %
    1 %
  60 %

 100 %

Three quarter and half puff pastry are regularly used.

 Three quarter puff pastry recipe for the different methods

method

Dutch

French

English

Flour
*salt
Margarine(soft)
Water
Color 
Pastry margarine

100 %
    1 %
-
  60 %
 

    50%

100 %
    1 %
      5 %
  60 %
 

75 %

100 %
    1 %
 5 %
  60 %
 

 100 %

Although the total fat content is still 75 % a small amount (5%) is taken from he pastry margarine and added into the dough (French and English).
The addition of salt depends on the amount of salt present in the margarine (always enough) and the product produced (savory).
Sometimes butter is used in puff pastry, but in general it is to expensive and also very soft (cooling needed).

Processing methods
The choice of the processing method depends on the use of equipment, the amount of puff pastry to be made etc. The Dutch and the French method are often used in the bakery, the English method is more for domestic use.

Puff pastry, French method

RECIPE:  

 

flour                             100 %      500 gram
salt                                  1 %         5   gram
margarine                        5 %        25 gram
water                              60 %     300 gram
pastry fat                       75 %      375 gram
A drop of lemon can be used to soften the gluten.

Remarks

  • the given processing method is based on a 75 % fat  addition, more fat will increase and less fat will decrease the number of turns
  • before use, the pastry fat has to be made pliable to give nice layers during rolling and folding
  • before folding, dusting flour has to be removed so the dough layers stick together
  • during processing the pastry can be put in the refrigerator for a short period to harden.

Working Sequence

  • Make a stiff dough of all ingredients, do not knead too long.
  • Shape the dough into a round,rest for 5 minutes.
  • Make pastry fat plastic, shape into a square.
  • Cut a cross on top of the dough.
  • Fold the pastry margarine into the dough.
  • Pin the dough 60 x 20 cm, fold it into three parts.
  • Turn the pastry 90 degrees before you start the next turn.
  • After 2 turns the puff paste needs a rest of a minimum of 20 minutes.
  • Depending on the kind of product and the amount of fat used this method needs 5 turns into 3 parts.

Notes

 

Puff pastry, Dutch or Scottish method

RECIPE:  

 

flour                            100 %      500 gram
salt                                1 %            5  gram
water                              60 %     300 gram
pastry fat                        75 %     375 gram
A drop of lemon can be used to soften the gluten

Remarks

  • the given processing method is based on a 75 % fat addition, more fat will increase and less fat will decrease the number of turns;
  • before use, the pastry fat has to be made pliable to give nice layers during rolling and folding;
  • before folding, dusting flour has to be removed so the dough layers stick together;
  • during processing the pastry can be put in the refrigerator for a short period to harden.

Working Sequence

  • Make pastry fat plastic, shape into a square, 1 cm thick.
  • Cut cube pieces 1 X 1 cm.
  • Mix flour and fat cubes shortly together.
  • Add all water and salt directly and mix it shortly. You should still see the fat cubes.
  • After mixing make a square piece.
  • Pin the dough 60 x 20 cm, fold it into 4 parts
  • This is also called a book turn.
  • Turn the pastry 90 degrees before you start the next turn.
  • After 2 turns the puff paste needs a rest of a minimum of 20 minutes.
  • Depending on the kind of product and the amount of fat used this method needs 5 turns into 3 parts.

Notes

  

Puff pastry, English method

RECIPE:  

 

flour                              100 %      500 gram
salt                                    1 %         5  gram
margarine                         5 %        25 gram
water                               60 %      300 gram
pastry fat                          75 %     375 gram
A drop of lemon can be used to soften the gluten.
 

Remarks

  • the given processing method is based on a 75 % fat   addition, more fat will increase and less fat will decrease the number of turns;
  • before use, the pastry fat has to be made pliable to give    nice layers during rolling and folding;
  • before folding, dusting flour has to be removed so the dough layers stick together;
  • during processing the pastry can be put in the refrigerator for a short period to harden.

Working Sequence

  • Make a stiff dough of all ingredients, do not knead too long.
  • Shape the dough into a round, rest for 5 minutes.
  • Make pastry fat plastic, shape into a rectangle 15 X 20 cm.
  • Cut a cross on top of the dough, pin dough 15 X 30 cm.
  • Fold the pastry margarine into the dough.
  • Pin the dough 60 x 20 cm, fold it into three parts.
  • Turn the pastry 90 degrees before you start the next turn.
  • After 2 turns the puff paste needs a rest of a minimum of 20 minutes.
  • Depending on the kind of product and the amount of fat used this method needs 5 turns into 3 parts.

Notes

 

Puff pastry, Quick method

RECIPE:  

flour                              100 %      500 gram
salt                                    1 %          5 gram
pastry fat                         90 %      450 gram
water                               60 %      300 gram
A drop of lemon can be used to soften the gluten.
 

Remarks

  • the given processing method is based on a 90 % fat  addition, more fat will increase and less fat will decrease the number of turns;
  • before use, the pastry fat has to be made pliable to give nice layers during rolling and folding;
  • before folding, dusting flour has to be removed so the dough layers stick together

Working Sequence

  • Make a smooth dough of all ingredients, as long as you do not see any pastry fat.
  • Shape the dough into a round, rest for 5 minutes.
  • Cut a cross on top of the dough.
  • Pin the dough 60 x 20 cm, fold it into 5 parts.
  • Turn the pastry 90 degrees before you start the next turn.
  • After 3 turns the puff paste is ready.
No rest is necessary between the turns
Notes

Ingredients
Flour for puff pastry requires sufficient protein with a high water absorbing capacity and starch with a high water absorbing capacity.

Fat used in puff pastry has to be;

For puff pastry special pastry margarine has to be used. If unsalted fat or margarine is used 2 % (of the flour weight) salt has t be used.

The origin of flakiness
During rolling and folding layers of fat are formed separated by thin dough layers. The better the processing is done the more even the dough structure will be. During baking fat melts, the moisture evaporates and fills up the space developed by the melting fat. Protein gelatinizes, the starch absorbs the water and the definite structure is established. At this stage the damper is opened. The moisture evaporates and the products become flaky and crispy.

Effects of rolling and folding
When one turn is carried out, the fat layer will be too thick. During baking the fat will melt and appear on the baking tray. He rolling and folding has to be done several times so the fat layers are thin enough. If the layers are too thin, the layers will disappear, consequently no flakiness ill appear in the products.

Making final products
During pinning out little flour should be used. The dough pinned out in different directions by turning it 90° will shrink evenly and keep a nice shape. During the processing of pastry dough the edges have to be wet, but when too wet the folded dough will not stick together and the filling will flow out of the product. After making the products some of them have to be egg washed for a nice gloss. When egg washed for a second time just before baking a better gloss will appear on the products.

Processing scrap dough
Scrap dough can be processed in different ways;

Storage
Ready puff pastry dough can be kept in the refrigerator for one or two days, wrapped a plastic. Ready puff pastry dough can be kept in the refrigerator for longer periods. The defrosting has to take place in the refrigerator to reduce condensation on the dough.

The baking process
The trays are washed with water, greased or baking paper is used. For products covered with sugar the trays are greased or baking paper is used. The baking temperature is lower when the products are bigger, have sugar on top or have a wet filling. So smaller products, with no sugar on top and a dry filling require a higher baking temperature.

Faults in puff pastry products

Faults

Causes

Insufficient oven spring, poor volume Ingredients
  •  too hard a fat
  •  too soft a fat
  • too strong or too weak a flour

 

Processing
  • skinning of the dough at all stages
  • forced rolling
  • too many turns
  • insufficient turns
  • too low a baking temperature
Too high a volume Ingredients

 

Processing
  • not enough rest during rolling and folding
  •  not enough rest  before baking
  • dough is pinned out too thick
  • too little turns
  • too high a baking temperature
  •  too much steam in the oven
Misshapen products Ingredients

 

Processing
  • not enough rest during rolling and folding
  •  too little turns
  • not equally pinned out
  •  too high a baking temperature
  • too much steam in the oven
Fat running out Ingredients
  • too hard a fat

 

Processing
  • not enough turns

6.1.2 Short paste

Introduction

As the word implies, this type of pastry, when baked, should be tender and fairly easily broken. When eaten it should “melt in the mouth” suggestion a complete absence of toughness. This is brought about by the balance of ingredients used in the processing method.

There is a big variety of short paste obtained through differences in:

Recipes

The basic ingredients for these products are flour, fat and sugar. The other ingredients used are eggs, water, salt, corn flour, flavour, baking powder etc.The average ratio flour, fat and sugar is 3: 2: 1.  A biscuit made from this recipe will keep its shape. Sugar and fat make the dough/biscuit flow, flour will prevent the dough from flowing.More fat will increase the crispness, more sugar will give brittleness and colour to the paste.All recipes can be related to the 3:2:1 ratio and give you an indication about the baking and eating qualities.A small amount of baking powder is sometimes used to replace some fat and remain the required properties.

Grams

Ingredients

% of flour

Parts per 100

Lb                         oz

 

500

flour

100

50

 

 

400

margarine

80

40

 

 

110

sugar

45

11

 

 

10

yolk

5

 1

 

 

Ingredients

Shortbread

Fruit pie pastry

Pinning

Blocking

bread flour

-

-

50

50

soft flour

100

100

50

50

butter/margarine

60

30

25

50

white shortening

-

30

25

-

lard

-

-

-

-

castor sugar

30

15

18,.5

18.5

Egg

As required

-

-

-

milk

-

15

-

-

water

-

-

12.5

6.25

salt

-

-

1.25

1.25

baking powder

-

1.5

1.25

-

Total

200

190

175

170

 

Processing methods

*In some recipes/products no air has to be mixed in. 

The baking trays have to be very clean and greased with fat.

The baking process

When the products are put into the oven the following processes take place:  Baking time and temperature

Type of product

Baking time in minutes

Pay attention to

Baking time dependent on

Small biscuits

7 -15

Nice colour=well baked

Thick biscuit longer baking time
Thin biscuit shorter baking time
Pieces of 100 grams or more

10-60

Nice colour=well baked

Higher temperature shorter baking time
Colder oven longer baking time

 

Faults in short and sweet pastry

causes

faults

Faults in goods made

jam

custard

 

Tough pastry

shrinkage

Distorted shape

Poor texture

Too much oven colour

Insufficient oven colour

Pastry too short

Brown spots on crust

in tarts boiling over

in tarts  spilling over

boiling

spilling  over      

breaking through pastry

breaking through pastry

Insufficient fat/egg/sugar used

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use of too strong a flour

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poor rolling out technique

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insufficient moistening agent used

 X

 

 

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excessive moistening agent used

 X

 X

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insufficient rest prior to baking

 

 X

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insufficient aeration

 

 

 X

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excessive aeration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oven temperature too high

 

 

 

 

 X

 

 

 

 X

 

 X

 

 

 

Oven temperature too low

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insufficient fat/egg used

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

excessive fat/egg used

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insufficient sugar used

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Excessive sugar

 

 

 

 

 X

 

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seal insufficient dampened

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Under mixing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Over mixing

X

X

X

X

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Undissolved sugar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jam too thin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

 

 

Too much filling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 X

 X

 

 

Excessive shrinkage of pastry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 X

 

 

 

Poor blocking or thumbing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

Pastry too thin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 X

 

6.1.4 Meringue

Introduction

The term meringue covers all forms of beaten egg whites and sugar, almost irrespective of the proportions used, the additions and any combinations. Meringue is used as a filling on its own or in combination as a cover or to produce a range of meringue based goods. 

Recipes

They can be subdivided under three headings:

ingredients

light

ordinary

heavy

Egg whites

200 g

200 g

200 g

Sugar

500 g

600 g

700 g

The greatest care must be taken to keep all equipment and materials free from fat (flour too).
No trace of egg yolk should be allowed in the whites. Fat will shorten the protein strands and prevent the enclosure of air. 

Working sequence cold meringue Working sequence hot meringue Working sequence boiled meringue Remarks Characteristics of meringue
Cold meringue Boiled or hot meringue
Very high volume Less volume
Crispy inside Tough inside
A coarse surface Very smooth surface

Ingredients

Chicken egg white  consists of 89% water and 11% albumin. The albumin has three important characteristics: Some proteins can retain air but do not coagulate. The best sugar to use is castor sugar. Sugar with invert sugar or molasses is not suitable because it will give a poor quality. He invert sugar will attract moisture after baking and the molasses will give a brown colour. Usually these products are added after finishing the meringue. Sometimes they contain fat or acid which reduces the aeration of the protein.The basic aroma is vanilla. Other aromas are; liqueurs, fruit aromas, chocolate and cocoa. Other ingredients which can be used are; chocolate chips, broken nuts, nut crunch.It is important to mix colour, aroma and other ingredients very carefully otherwise the meringue will collapse.

Processing

By whisking egg whites in a bowl the proteins form large cells filled with air. The volume will increase and the substance will become thicker and will get more body. By continuous mixing the large cells will break and form several small cells. During this process these cell walls are stretched. As the moisture evaporates these cell walls will dry and break. You will then see small particles of egg white. This is albumin. Now the protein has been curdled. We avoid curdling by adding anti-curdling sugar (the first amount) which will form syrup around the cell walls. The syrup will prevent the walls from drying out. If we add the ant-curdling sugar too late the cell walls are already dried and will break. We then get a soft meringue with little volume. If we add he sugar to soon the syrup will be too heavy whereby the cell walls collapse. If fat is present in egg white it will not be possible to aerate that egg white. The fat can be present through egg yolk, dirty tools, flour in the gar etc.The fat will be set between the protein cell wall and the sugar syrup layer and decrease the amount of air which can be kept by the protein cell. Therefore fat reduces the aeration of the protein cells because the protein becomes weak.So to make meringue, clean tools and ingredients are needed. Sometimes some acetic or lemon acid is used to toughen the protein when a little bit of fat is present to improve the aeration. Meringue will be baked between 125°- 150°C and tried after that. During baking the developed steam will increase the volume. At about 70°C the protein will coagulate and will give body to the final product. The sugar will melt and will come back in a different form(syrup). Originally the products of cold meringue have to be completely dry and the boiled meringue should have a syrup like inside.

faults

causes

Cracks in the products - Not enough air in the egg white
- Some fat
- Too fast addition of anti-curdling sugar
- Too much manipulation after whisking
Too little volume - Not enough air in the egg white
- Some fat
- Too fast addition of anti-curdling sugar

- Too much sugar
-
Too much manipulation after whisking
Brown colour - Too high a baking temperature
- Too much acid
- Not very much refined sugar

6.1. 5 Cake and sponges

Introduction

Several names are used for the same products or the name cake is often used for different products.

A cake is a baked mixture of fat, sugar, eggs and flour, with or without milk, baking powder, fruits, etc. A good cake should show a multitude of evenly distributed minute cells without any large holes. It should have good color and sheen, should eat moist, have a good flavor and the general appearance should be attractive, with a good eye appeal.

Changes during processing

Cake batter is an emulsion of the oil-in-water type with air bubbles entrapped in the fat phase, and the remainder of the ingredients dissolved or dispersed in the water phase.
It is generally accepted that the aeration of the cake depends on the expansion of the gases, air and carbon dioxide if baking powder is used, together with the water vapor pressure within the air bubbles.  As the volume of a cake batter is increased by  about 3,5 times during baking, this could not be due solely to the gases, and is has been found that the air content accounts for little more than 10% of the total expansion. The remaining 90% is obtained by the conversion of water into steam within the bubble.
As the temperature rises during baking the batter thins and some coalescence of the bubbles occurs with some loss of gas. The rate of coalescence depends on the bubble size and, more important, the variation in bubble size. Fine bubbles of even size and the presence of large bubbles results in an unstable mix, producing cakes of coarse and even more uneven texture.
The process of coalescence is finally arrested by a thickening of the batter due to the swelling of the starch and the coagulation of the egg and flour proteins. Some authorities regard the coagulation of the flour proteins as being of little importance, as quite a good cake can be made with all starch and no protein. This does not explain why, for example, it is necessary to use a high-protein flour in high-sugar, high-liquid fruit cakes.
The presence of the air bubbles, therefore, is essential, and they can be regarded as the nucleus for the expansion of the cake, controlling it and governing it.

Object of mixing

The purpose of batter mixing is:

Incorporation of air

Incorporation of air takes place in two stages:

Cake making methods

Sugar batter

Remarks

Flour batter

Remarks

Recipes

There are many possibilities in the recipes for cake depending on the sales price, special purposes etc. Here you see how recipes can be changed starting with the basic recipe. There are many more possibilities.

ingredients

Expensive recipe

Basic recipe

Cheaper recipe

flour

100 %

1500 g

100 %

1500 g

100 %

1500 g

margarine

100 %

1500 g

70 %

1050 g

70 %

1050 g

Sugar

100 %

1500 g

70 %

1050 g

70 %

1050 g

eggs

100 %

1500 g

70 %

1050 g

50 %

750 g

milk

-

-

-

-

30 %

450 g

Baking powder

-

-

1 %

15 g

2 %

30 g

vanilla

-

 

-

 

-

 

egg yellow

-

 

-

 

-

 

 

Recipe construction and balance

The basic ingredients in batter type cakes each perform a particular function.

For a cake recipe to be correctly constructed it must have a good balance between those ingredients which open the texture and those which close it. This in fact is what is meant  by recipe balance.If a cake contains too much sugar, then the structure is weakened to the point where it collapses. This takes place in the centre of the cake, producing the well known “M” fault.Similarly, a cake with too much baking powder will sink in the centre. Conversely, a cake containing too much liquid will have a tough very close rubbery structure collapsing after baking, and a tendency to shrink. These results in a cake pulling away from the cake bands or paper cases, forming concave sides to produce what is known as the “X” fault.The “X” and “M” faults will cancel one another out to a large extent. That is to say, a cake of high sugar and/or baking powder content can be prevented from sinking by adding more liquid. Similarly, a high liquid cake can be balanced by increasing the sugar or baking powder.Egg is very important in providing strength and structure, but excess of tends to produce a tough rubbery cake.The function of the fat, in addition to air, is to shorten the structure and make the cake more tender.  The fat and the egg produce opposite effects and it is generally accepted that for the production of satisfactory cake the ratio of egg to fat should be of the order of 1.25: 1. When considering the construction of a recipe the most commonly accepted method is to relate the quantities of the various ingredients to the flour.

Factors governing cake quality

Depending on the size, thickness, shape, etc., the baking time and temperature vary accordingly
- queen cake 200° - 220° C between 20  - 30  minutes
- slab cake   (500 g) 160° - 180° C between  50  - 60  minutes
- wedding cake(3000 g) 160° - 170° C between 150 - 180minutes

Cake faults  1

CAUSES

FAULTS

  • Sad streak under top of cake
  • Under baking
  • Cake being knocked or moved during baking
  • Too hot an oven
  • Sad streak at bottom of cake
  • Too much liquid
  • Insufficient baking powder
  • Insufficient sugar
  • Too soft a flour
  • Weak or insufficient egg
  • Collapsed in centre of cake –white spots on crust
  • Excess sugar
  • Collapsed in centre of cake-dark crust
  • Excess baking powder
  • Small volume-collapsed at the sides, shrinking from sides
  • Excess liquid
  • Insufficient egg
  • Flour too soft
  • Small volume-“cauliflower” top
  • Too hot an oven
  • Insufficient steam in oven
  • Too strong flour
  • Too much egg
  • Insufficient sugar
  • Long holes in texture
  • Insufficient aeration
  • Insufficient creaming
  • Poor creaming fat
  • Bad scaling
  • Too much mixing
  • Discoloured crumb
  • Badly balanced baking powder – excess alkali
  • Too tender crumb
  • Too much fat in relation to egg
  • Crumbly crumb-coarse open texture
  • Weak flour
  • Insufficient egg in relation to fat
  • Too much sugar
  • Too much baking powder
  • Cool oven - slow baking
  • Fruit sinking
  • Weak or insufficient flour
  • Insufficient egg
  • Too light a mixing
  • Over creaming
  • - Insufficient mixing
  • - Insufficient egg
  • Too light a mixing
  • - Over creaming
  • - Insufficient mixing
  • Cool oven – slow baking
  • Fruit too heavy
  • -  Very wet
  • - Syrup not removed in case of cherries
  • Batter insufficiently acid
  • Too much sugar
  • Too much baking powder

Sponge

A sponge is a light cake usually containing eggs, sugar, flour and sometimes butter; in the latter case it is usually referred to as butter sponge. The character of a cake can be altered by adjustments in the amount of materials used and or by additions. Genoese is quite close to sponge, sometimes it is the same. Light sponge = butter sponge. When 50% or more fat is used on a sponge recipe it is often called Genoese. Most of the products are used as a base for gateaux, fancies or decorated cakes. Most of the recipes are not very suitable for fillings like fruits. Different recipes sometimes require different processing methods. The main differences are within the recipe. Almost any shape can be made. Some models require a different recipe. Products made out of these recipes are Swiss Rolls, Othello”s, Fingers, bases for Gateaux and Fancies.

Processing method

Warm method